G Proteins in Cancer: The Prostate Cancer Paradigm
This STKE Review discusses molecular signaling pathways that contribute to prostate cancer progression. With 5 figures, 2 tables, and 112 citations, the article provides an in-depth analysis of the role of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) in stimulating androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. Many of the proposed pathways that contribute to androgen-independent cell proliferation appear to involve the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERKs). G proteins may be activated in response to excessive ligand production for their receptors and may subsequently activate growth factor receptors that themselves activate ERKs, or they may promote the androgen-independent activation of androgen receptors.