SIGN IN   Advanced Search

Browse Illustration
Limb Development Takes a Measured Step Toward Systems Analysis

Growth and patterning of the embryonic vertebrate limb is regulated by feedback loops signaling between the epithelium and mesenchyme of the limb bud. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling from the epithelium regulates Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in the mesenchyme. In turn, SHH activity maintains the expression of Gremlin1, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist; the interaction between BMP and Gremlin1 regulates Fgf gene expression. A computational model using data from complex genetic analysis and quantitative measurements of gene induction kinetics demonstrates that limb development is robust and thus buffered against certain mutational alterations and epigenetic changes because of these feedback loops.

Rate this Resource:
1 = not useful, 5 = very useful

Please be the first to rate this resource.

Subscribe and
View Resource


Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright

Authors and Editors: Susan Mackem of Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Mark Lewandoski of Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Cancer Institute
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes


» Sign In or register to post comments.

STKE/Science Signaling



Triple A S National Science Foundation Naitonal Science Digital Library Pathway
Funded by the individual BEN Collaborators and grants from the
National Science Foundation [DUE 0085840 / DUE 0226185 / DUE 0532797 / DUE 0734995]

This website is a National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathway.
Copyright © 2019. American Association for the Advancement of Science. All Rights Reserved.