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Interferon at 50: New Molecules, New Potential, New (and Old) Questions

Type I interferons (IFNs) are a family of cytokines defined by their antiviral activity but with a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antiproliferative, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. Mirroring these activities are diverse therapeutic applications to viral infections, antitumor therapy, and multiple sclerosis. The type I IFNs all signal through a common heterodimeric receptor. The existence of such a large family of cytokines (17 human IFNs) activating a common receptor is unusual. Moreover, the IFNs vary in their relative potency in different assays and are not functionally equivalent. How this functional variation is mediated through a common receptor has not been understood. Reports have now highlighted the interaction of IFNs with the low-affinity receptor subunit IFNAR-1 as a surprising key to their differential activity, particularly regarding antiproliferative and antitumor activities. Two groups have used contrasting approaches to produce variant IFN-α proteins with novel activity profiles. These advances portend enhanced therapeutic possibilities based on the better understanding of IFN-receptor interactions, while raising interesting mechanistic questions.

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Classifications


Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Jerome A. Langer of University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling


     
   

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