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Protein Translocation Across Biological Membranes

This article provides a review of progress made in the study of protein translocation. Subcellular compartments have unique protein compositions, yet protein synthesis only occurs in the cytosol and in mitochondria and chloroplasts. How do proteins get where they need to go? The first steps are targeting to an organelle and efficient translocation across its limiting membrane. Given that most transport systems are exquisitely substrate specific, how are diverse protein sequences recognized for translocation? Are they translocated as linear polypeptide chains or after folding? During translocation, how are diverse amino acyl side chains accommodated? What are the proteins and the lipid environment that catalyze transport and couple it to energy? How is translocation coordinated with protein synthesis and folding, and how are partially translocated transmembrane proteins released into the lipid bilayer? We review here the marked progress of the past 35 years and salient questions for future work.

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Resource Type: Journal article/Issue, Illustration
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program), Continuing education

Author and Copyright

Authors and Editors: William Wickner of Department of Biological Chemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Randy Schekman of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California
Publisher: AAAS
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No


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