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A Cell's Sense of Direction

In eukaryotic cells directional sensing is mediated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–linked signaling pathways. In Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and mammalian leukocytes, the receptors and G-protein subunits are uniformly distributed around the cell perimeter. Chemoattractants induce the transient appearance of binding sites for several pleckstrin homology domain–containing proteins on the inner face of the membrane. In gradients of attractant these sites are persistently present on the side of the cell facing the higher concentration, even in the absence of a functional actin cytoskeleton or cell movement. Thus, the cell senses direction by spatially regulating the activity of the signal transduction pathway.

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Resource Type: Journal article/Issue, Review, Illustration
Discipline: Biochemistry, Cell biology, Enzymology, Molecular Biology, Proteomics
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Plan, Research
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program), Continuing education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Carole A. Parent of Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Peter N. Devreotes of Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Publisher: AAAS
Date Published: 2011-09-29, 1999-04-30
Date Added to BEN: 2013-01-28
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Access to the article is free; however registration and sign-in are required. © Copyright AAAS. All rights reserved.

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Collection:
American Association for the Advancement of Science



A Circadian Loop asSIRTs Itself

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Daily time keeping in many organisms depends on internal circadian clocks that temporally organize biological functions relative to each other as well as the environment. These clocks generate rhythms in physiology and behavior by using circuits of gene expression that are organized in negative-feedback loops. The studies of Nakahata et al. and Ramsey et al. propose the addition of a new negative-feedback loop to this circuitry that involves the metabolite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and the protein SIRTUIN1 (SIRT1). The new loop suggests connections between the circadian clock and SIRT1-dependent functions associated with cell survival, development, inflammation, and metabolism.

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Resource Type: Review, Diagram, Journal
Discipline: Genetics & Heredity, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program), Continuing education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Herman Wijnen of University of Virginia
Publisher: AAAS
Date Published: 2009-05-01
Date Added to BEN: 2010-06-18
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: © Copyright AAAS 2009. All rights reserved

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Collection:
American Association for the Advancement of Science



A clandestine lab

Some people illegally store clandestine, or hidden, labs in their homes for making drugs. These labs are extremely dangerous because the makers are working with flammable and explosive elements that are sensitive to light, heat, etc. The makers generally have little knowledge about the chemicals they are using.

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Behavioral Science
Pedagogical Use: Teach
Audience Level: Intermediate elementary 3-5, Middle school 6-8

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: N/A N/A of DEA
Publisher: DEA
Date Published: 2006-04-01
Date Added to BEN: 2008-10-16
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: no description

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Collection:
Video and Image Data Access



A Code in the Nose

The mammalian nose is arguably the best chemical detector on the planet, capable of detecting and discriminating among many thousands of compounds. This ability is mediated at the earliest steps by a large family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The capacity to detect and discriminate odors depends on a combinatorial code, in which any given receptor recognizes many odors and any given odor compound might serve as a ligand at multiple receptors. Recent research adds a layer of complexity to the interpretation of this olfactory code, suggesting that the overall effect of a mixture of odorants is not simply equal to the sum of its parts. Rather, individual odorants can act as antagonists at the level of individual GPCRs, thereby suppressing some of the signaling pathways activated by structurally related compounds. Thus, the odor code not only is a function of the pattern of activated receptors, but also may be further sharpened by the action of antagonism. It seems that odor coding is now a division of pharmacology.

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Resource Type: Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Biochemistry, Cell biology, Molecular Biology, Neurobiology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Stuart Firestein of Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2004-04-06
Date Added to BEN: 2005-02-18
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



A collection of fern plants in a California forest

Ferns are the most diverse group of seedless vascular plants. The leaves are compound and contain many little leaflets. The many leaflets contain spore spots. Ferns have a true root system, unlike the bryophytes.

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Biodiversity, Botany & Plant Science
Pedagogical Use: Learn
Audience Level: Middle school 6-8

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Katie Hale of Student, California State University
Publisher: Nancy Pelaez, CSUF
Date Published: 2007-01-13
Date Added to BEN: 2007-11-12
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: no description

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Collection:
Video and Image Data Access



A Cool Channel in Cold Transduction- Figure 1

This figure shows the amino acid sequence of the rat TRPM8 channel subunit

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Resource Type: Digital Presentation (Powerpoint), Illustration, Image, Journal Article/Issue
Discipline: Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: learn
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division (Grades 13-14), Undergraduate upper division (Grades 15-16), Graduate, Professional (degree program), General Public, Informal Education, Continuing Education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: PhD Ramon Latorre of Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Departamento de Biologý´a and Centro de Estudios Cientý´ficos, Sebastian Brauchi of Universidad Austral de Chile Instituto de Fisiología, Rodolfo Madrid of Universidad de Santiago de Chile Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Patricio Orio of Departamento de Biología
Date Published: 2011-08-01
Date Added to BEN: 2013-01-27
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: No
Cost: No

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Collection:
American Physiological Society



A Cool Channel in Cold Transduction- Figure 2

This figure shows the excitatory response of cold-sensitive trigeminal neurons to mild temperature reductions depends on TRPM8

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Classifications


Resource Type: Digital Presentation (Powerpoint), Graph/Chart, Image, Journal Article/Issue
Discipline: Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: learn
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division (Grades 13-14), Undergraduate upper division (Grades 15-16), Graduate, Professional (degree program), General Public, Informal Education, Continuing Education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: PhD Ramon Latorre of Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Departamento de Biologý´a and Centro de Estudios Cientý´ficos, Sebastian Brauchi of Universidad Austral de Chile Instituto de Fisiología, Rodolfo Madrid of Universidad de Santiago de Chile Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Patricio Orio of Departamento de Biología
Date Published: 2011-08-01
Date Added to BEN: 2013-01-27
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: No
Cost: No

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Collection:
American Physiological Society



A Cool Channel in Cold Transduction-Figure 3

This figure shows modulation of TRPM8 by intracellular signaling and vesicle trafficking

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Classifications


Resource Type: Digital Presentation (Powerpoint), Illustration, Image, Photograph, Journal Article/Issue
Discipline: Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: learn
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division (Grades 13-14), Undergraduate upper division (Grades 15-16), Graduate, Professional (degree program), General Public, Informal Education, Continuing Education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: PhD Ramon Latorre of Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Departamento de Biologý´a and Centro de Estudios Cientý´ficos, Sebastian Brauchi of Universidad Austral de Chile Instituto de Fisiología, Rodolfo Madrid of Universidad de Santiago de Chile Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Patricio Orio of Departamento de Biología
Date Published: 2011-08-01
Date Added to BEN: 2013-01-27
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: No
Cost: No

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Collection:
American Physiological Society



A Cool Channel in Cold Transduction-Figure 4

This figure shows the the complex life of cold receptors

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Classifications


Resource Type: Digital Presentation (Powerpoint), Graph/Chart, Illustration, Image, Journal Article/Issue
Discipline: Biophysics, Molecular Biology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: learn
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division (Grades 13-14), Undergraduate upper division (Grades 15-16), Graduate, Professional (degree program), General Public, Informal Education, Continuing Education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: PhD Ramon Latorre of Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Departamento de Biologý´a and Centro de Estudios Cientý´ficos, Sebastian Brauchi of Universidad Austral de Chile Instituto de Fisiología, Rodolfo Madrid of Universidad de Santiago de Chile Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Patricio Orio of Departamento de Biología
Date Published: 2011-08-01
Date Added to BEN: 2013-01-27
Format: text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: No
Cost: No

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Collection:
American Physiological Society



A Cunning Stunt: An Alternative Mechanism of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation

Cell stress activates signaling pathways, allowing cells to choose between survival and apoptosis. Translation plays a critical role in balancing this choice by allowing for rapid and physiologically responsive changes in de novo gene expression. The steady-state abundance of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2) is increased in response to various cell stresses. This modular protein contains baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) motifs and ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) activity, which allows it to bind directly to caspases and to modulate activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding cIAP2 is a large 5.5-kb transcript, with a highly structured 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) also containing 64 upstream initiation codons ahead of the true start codon. cIAP2 employs an unusual cap-dependent mechanism of ribosome shunting to bypass the majority of the inhibitory elements in the 5′UTR, a mechanism first described for plant pararetroviruses. Furthermore, in mammalian cells, this poorly understood mechanism of translation for cIAP2 is enhanced during mild stress in the absence of pararetrovirus-encoded proteins known to be essential for this process in plant cells. Here, we discuss how cIAP2 might utilize the stress-mediated shunt process in the absence of viral proteins, which suggests a more widespread role for canonical initiation factors, internal ribosome entry sequence–specific trans-acting factors, and mRNA structure in translational control during stress.

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Classifications


Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Cell biology, Molecular Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Simon J. Morley of Department of Biochemistry, University of Sussex, Mark J. Coldwell of Department of Biochemistry, University of Sussex
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2008-06-24
Date Added to BEN: 2013-05-11
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



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