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Ypt/Rab GTPases: Regulators of Protein Trafficking

In eukaryotic cells, an evolutionarily conserved transport system routes proteins through a number of highly regulated pathways. In these pathways, intercellular signaling proteins are released, receptors and transporters are presented on the outer cell membrane, and ligand-bound receptors are internalized. Therefore, the protein transport system is central to the interaction of cells with their environments. The passage of proteins through this transport system involves an orderly progression through a series of membrane-bound compartments. To be transported from one compartment to the next, proteins are packaged into small vesicles that bud from one compartment and fuse with the next. Like traffic lights at critical intersections, a family of proteins known as Ypt/Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulates vesicle formation, movement, attachment, and fusion at each transport step. These individual transport steps might be further coordinated by Ypt/Rabs through their communication with each other. GTPases in general serve as molecular switches that can be turned "on" or "off" by upstream regulators. Ypt/Rabs transmit their "on" signals through the recruitment and activation of multiple downstream effector proteins, which carry out the various functions necessary for vesicle transport. Numerous regulators and effectors of Ypt/Rab GTPases have been identified, leading to models that predict how they carry out their functions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about molecular mechanisms by which the Ypt/Rab switches perform their highly complex task.

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Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review, Table
Discipline: Cell biology, Molecular Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Nava Segev of Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2001-09-18
Date Added to BEN: 2013-05-11
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



Yucca brevifolia (CA)

Yucca brevifolia (CA)

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Turner Collins
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Yucca plant in the Mojave desert

Yucca plants use an alternative form of photosynthesis that allows them to conserve water. This is an adaptation to the dry desert environment.

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn
Audience Level: Middle school 6-8

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Katie Hale of Student, California State University
Publisher: Shanelle Etzen, CSUF
Date Published: 2007-01-13
Date Added to BEN: 2007-11-12
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: no description

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Collection:
Video and Image Data Access



Zamia (cone)

Zamia (cone)

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zamia (cone)

Zamia (cone)

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zamia (microsporangia)

Zamia (microsporangia)

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zamia (seed release)

Zamia (seed release)

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zamia seeds

Zamia seeds

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zea leaf bundle

Zea leaf bundle

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Resource

Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Marshall Sundberg of Division of Biological Science, Emporia State University
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zea leaf, autofluorescence

Zea leaf, autofluorescence

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Resource

Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Ann Hirsch of Department of Molecular, University of California
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

Comments


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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



More search results: 1 ... 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734

     
   

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