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Zingiber sp., flower

Zingiber sp., flower

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Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zingiber sp., fruit

Zingiber sp., fruit

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Dave Webb of Department of Botany, University of Hawaii
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



Zooming in on the X, 2D animation
Site: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)


Zooming in on the x chromosome.

Each chromosome consists of one continuous thread-like molecule of DNA coiled tightly around proteins, and contains a portion of the 6,400,000,000 basepairs (DNA building blocks) that make up your DNA.

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Resource Type: animation
Discipline: genetics & health, neurobiology, population biology, psychology, reproductive biology, sociobiology, public health
Audience Level: General public & informal education

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: David Micklos of DNA Learning Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Jan Witkowski of Banbury Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Garland Allen of Biology Department, Washington University at St. Louis, Elof Carlson of Biology Department, SUNY at Stony Brook, Paul Lombardo of Center for Biomedical Ethics, University of Virginia, Steven Selden of Education Policy and Leadership Department, University of Maryland
Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Date Published: 2008-10-06
Date Added to BEN: 2008-10-17
Format: application/x-shockwave-flash
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Copyright © 1999-2008: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; All rights reserved.

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Collection:
Dolan DNA Learning Center



Zygocactus, flattened stem

Zygocactus, flattened stem

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Classifications


Resource Type: Image
Discipline: Botany & Plant Science
Audience Level: High school lower division 9-10, High school upper division 11-12, Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Ann Hirsch of Department of Molecular, University of California
Date Published: 2004-03-09
Date Added to BEN: 2004-03-08
Format: image/jpeg
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Use of the site is limited to free use in a nonprofit educational or private non-commercial context. Images remain the property of the copyright holder, who retains all rights implicit in copyright laws and other rights to the images not enumerated here for worldwide use. Images may be stored for personal or classroom use, provided that the image displays the unaltered text watermark. All rights to reproduce these images are retained by the Botanical Society of America and the copyright owner. By accessing these images, you are consenting to our licensing agreement. By mentioning these rights, we are just underscoring that those who donated these images should get credit for them and receive any nominal fees should a publisher decide to use these images in a book or CD.

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Collection:
Botanical Society of America



{beta}-Adrenergic Regulation of the L-Type Ca2+ Channel CaV1.2 by PKA Rekindles Excitement

When we are frightened, our hearts beat more rapidly and forcefully so we can fight more intensely or run away faster. This fight-or-flight response is triggered by the release of norepinephrine from neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Norepinephrine activates the classic β-adrenergic receptor–heterotrimeric Gs protein–adenylyl cyclase–adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate–protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade. One of the main PKA targets implicated in this response is the L-type Ca2+ channel CaV1.2, which mediates Ca2+ influx into cardiomyocytes. Because of its central function in regulating heartbeat, and because the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive, understanding the regulation of CaV1.2 has been considered the holy grail for the field of channel regulation. New evidence from the quest to solve the mystery of CaV1.2 regulation has revealed that reproducible reconstitution of this regulation in heterologous cells requires a perfect balance of the ratio of CaV1.2 to A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs). Proteolytic processing of the cytosolic C terminus of the central, pore-forming α11.2 subunit of CaV1.2 contributed to its regulation by PKA, and Ser1700 in the C terminus of the α11.2 subunit emerged as the relevant PKA phosphorylation site.

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Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Cardiology, Cell biology, Endocrinology, Human Biology, Molecular Biology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Johannes W. Hell of University of California, Davis
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2010-09-28
Date Added to BEN: 2013-05-11
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



{beta}-Adrenergic Signaling in the Heart: Dual Coupling of the {beta}2-Adrenergic Receptor to Gs and Gi Proteins

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest class of cell surface signaling molecules in eukaryotes and in some prokaryotes. By activating their cognate heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins (G proteins), GPCRs transduce stimulatory or inhibitory signals for a wide array of endogenous hormones and neurotransmitters, and ambient physical and chemical stimuli, as well as exogenous therapeutic reagents. β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are archetypical members of the GPCR superfamily. There are, at least, both β1AR and β2AR present in heart muscle cells. Whereas both βAR subtypes stimulate the classic Gs-adenylyl cyclase-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade, β2AR can activate bifurcated signaling pathways through Gs and Gi proteins. Because of their distinct G protein coupling, these βAR subtypes fulfill distinct, sometimes even opposite, physiological and pathological roles. Specifically, in the heart, whereas β1AR-generated cAMP signal can broadcast throughout the cell, the β2AR-stimulated cAMP signal is spatially and functionally compartmentalized to subsurface membrane microdomains by the concurrent Gi activation, thus selectively affecting plasma membrane effectors (such as L-type Ca2+ channels) and bypassing cytoplasmic regulatory proteins (such as phospholamban and myofilaments). Of potentially greater importance, the β2AR-to-Gi pathway also delivers a powerful cardiac protective signal. As a consequence, β1AR and β2AR exhibit opposing effects on heart cell survival: β1AR activation can promote programmed heart cell death (apoptosis); in sharp contrast, β2AR activation can protect heart cells from a wide range of assaulting factors, including enhanced β1AR stimulation, hypoxia, and reactive oxygen species. The β2AR survival pathway sequentially involves Gi, Gβγ, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt. Furthermore, in vivo overexpression of β1AR, but not β2AR, induces heart muscle cell hypertrophy and heart failure in transgenic mouse models. These findings indicate that the differential G protein coupling, to a large extent, accounts for the distinctly different physiological and pathological roles in the heart for β2AR versus those of β1AR. The delicate balance of Gs and Gi signaling in space and time might be crucial to normal cellular functions, whereas an imbalance may have important pathophysiological relevance and clinical implications. For instance, selective activation of cardiac β2AR may provide catecholamine-dependent inotropic support without cardiotoxic consequences, which might have beneficial effects in the failing heart.

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Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Cell biology, Molecular Biology, Neurobiology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Rui-Ping Xiao of Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2001-10-16
Date Added to BEN: 2013-05-11
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



{beta}-Arrestin and Mdm2, Unsuspected Partners in Signaling from the Cell Surface

Mdm2 is a ubiquitin-protein ligase known to ubiquitinate p53, promoting its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Shenoy and co-workers showed that Mdm2 can act as a key factor in the sequestration of the cell surface β2-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) through interactions with β-arrestin. Strous and Schantl discuss how Mdm2 may be a switch connecting extracellular signals mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to p53 and its functions in apoptosis and cell cycle progression.

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Resource Type: Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Biochemistry, Cell biology, Molecular Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Ger J. Strous of Department of Cell Biology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Julia A. Schantl of Department of Cell Biology, University Medical Center Utrecht
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2001-11-27
Date Added to BEN: 2004-09-02
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright 2001 American Association for the Advancement of Science

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



{beta}-catenin Signaling and Axis Specification

This animation provides a representation of the β-catenin signaling pathway in response to fertilization and the process of axis specification that occurs early in development. The process shown is based on analysis of embryos of the amphibian Xenopus. This animation would be useful in illustrating events that occur early in embryogenesis and how embryos become polarized as a consequence of localized signaling processes.

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Resource Type: Animation
Discipline: Cell biology, Developmental Biology, Molecular Biology, Reproductive Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate lower division 13-14, Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Randall T. Moon of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington School of Medicine
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2004-07-06
Date Added to BEN: 2004-09-02
Format: application/x-shockwave-flash
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: No
Cost Description: Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



{beta}-Catenin, Cancer, and G Proteins: Not Just for Frizzleds Anymore

The lipid metabolite lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates an impressive set of responses that includes morphogenesis, cell proliferation, cell survival, cell adhesion, and cell migration. LPA exerts its downstream signaling by binding to the LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (formerly Edg-2, -4, and -7) family of seven-transmembrane, segmented, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors. LPA actions of therapeutic interest include effects on wound healing, atherogenesis, thrombogenesis, and, of course, cancer. LPA has been implicated in the progression of human breast, ovarian, prostate, head and neck, and colon malignancies. In view of these earlier observations, a recent report that LPA stimulates the proliferation of colon cancer–derived cell lines was greeted with great anticipation for its possible contribution to the unraveling of details of cancer signaling downstream of LPA. LPA was shown to stimulate nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in a manner that depended on activation of Gαq by LPA2,3, activation of phospholipase Cβ, activation of a conventional protein kinase C, and phosphorylation and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3-β. The phosphorylation of β-catenin by this kinase marks the protein for intracellular degradation; LPA suppresses this degradation and stimulates β-catenin accumulation. β-catenin is a pivotal molecule in the control of cell cycle progression and gene expression, activating both processes in combination with lymphoid-enhancing factor/T cell–factor–sensitive transcription and inhibiting both processes in combination with FOXO transcription factors. The ability of LPA to increase the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin provides a new dimension of knowledge linking lipid mediators to the dysregulation of β-catenin signaling in cancer.

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Resource Type: Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Cell biology, Human Biology, Molecular Biology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Craig C. Malbon of Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine Health Sciences Center SUNY-Stony Brook
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2005-07-12
Date Added to BEN: 2005-10-25
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2005 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



{beta}2-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms and Signaling: Do Variants Influence the "Memory" of Receptor Activation?

Nonsynonymous, coding sequence single-nucleotide polymorphisms in β2-adrenergic receptors were first recognized almost 20 years ago, but a full understanding of their impact on signal transduction—especially on receptor abundance in native cells and their clinical importance—remains unclear. New evidence has revealed a feature of the Arg16Gly variant of β2-adrenergic receptors that has not been previously noted: a difference in the rate of response upon repeated stimulation of the receptors, such that the Arg16 variant shows slower activation and the Gly16 variant faster activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation—a feature that the authors term “receptor memory.” This is an intriguing idea but will require confirmation and demonstration of its functional importance in vivo and its possible contribution to clinical responses, especially in terms of the administration of β2-adrenergic agonists.

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Classifications


Resource Type: Bibliography, Diagram, Illustration, Journal article/Issue, Review
Discipline: Biochemistry, Cell biology, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, Physiology
Pedagogical Use: Learn, Research, Teach
Audience Level: Undergraduate upper division 15-16, Graduate, Professional (degree program)

Author and Copyright


Authors and Editors: Paul A. Insel of Departments of Pharmacology and Medicine, University of California at San Diego
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Date Published: 2011-08-09
Date Added to BEN: 2013-05-11
Format: application/pdf, image/gif, image/jpeg, text/html
Copyright and other restrictions: Yes
Cost: Yes
Cost Description: Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University

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Collection:
STKE/Science Signaling



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